2018, Elizabeth Brown thesis proposal paper

In this introduction, I will present insight into Russian folk/fairy tales which had an extensive influence on my life perceptions and morals and my inner psych. I will be exploring this topic using spiritual psychological, Philosophical and cultural elements.

 

If we hope to live not just from moment to moment, but in true consciousness of our existence, then our greatest need and most difficult achievement is to find a meaning to our lives. An understanding of the meaning of one’s life is not suddenly acquired at a particular age, not even when one has reached chronological maturity. Attaining psychological and spiritual maturity constitutes the terms that allow  to gain a secure understanding of what the meaning of one’s life may or ought to be.

 

Stories we were told or that we read in our childhood enlighten our imagination and many times influence deeply our perception of the world and its rules. Those stories, educate, convey tradition, teach common sense, along with inducing curiosity and learning. The characters appearing in those tales are based on stereotypes, with a clear psychological role and the story rolls free from the rules of reality evoking magic enchanted with secrets waiting to be revealed. Undoubtedly the experiences we undergo in our childhood forge our character and contribute to the formation of our psychological nature. We cherish the reminiscences from our childhood, music, voices. smells, tastes which are carved deeply in our brain and soul.

Stories have existed and still exist because they fulfill many important functions in our cultural world. Stories and tales may be evaluated using different approaches, psychological, cultural, anthropological, folklorist, literary and more. They contain symbols, often representing a fight between good and evil permitting many ways of analysis.

 

Maria Tatar, a contemporary folk and fairy tale scholar, wrote that the "staying power" of fairy tales "suggests that they must be addressing issues that have a significant social function", but also "fairy tales ... develop maps for coping with personal anxieties, family conflicts, social frictions, and the myriad frustrations of everyday life"[1].

 

Using academic phrasing, Branson [2] wrote that "a fairy tale is a representation of cultural perspective and understanding that acts as an important socialization tool, whether it teaches its audience how to understand and mitigate basic fears and human functions or reinforces an existing moral and social structure."

Fairy tales may offer coping strategies that maybe used in the real-life situations. Concomitantly the fairy tale has a power to convey educational messages. It helps to transmit specific point of views pertaining to sociocultural issues.

 

Popescu and Andrias [3] stress the Jungian perspective, suggesting that the fairytale contains rich symbolic materials, mirrors the collective unconscious, allows unification of opposites and offers a path towards the contents of the unconscious.

 

I. Ruskie Narodnie Skaski (Русские народные сказки)

 

As a child I grew up on “Narodnye Skaski”  (Russian fairy/folk tales) and it affected my life very much. It gave me special symbolic meanings and understandings and has accompanied me throughout my life to this day.

The world of “Narodnye Skaski” is special. In this way, leaving home, and wandering through the woods and situations represents a spiritual journey, in which people generally apprehend the wisdom and become adults.

Most Russian folk tales are in prose and are of tree kinds: animal stories, fairy tales and stories of everyday life.

The animals in the first group of tales are treated as rational beings, with names and patronymics in a process of personification. And each has a characteristic.  In the fairy tales, the fantastic is prominent: the main characters are often princes and princesses. The hero is a peasant’s son. Well known figures from Russian peasant mythology, such as Baba-Yaga and Koshcei the Immortal, appear in those tales. The third group, which includes comic and satirical stories, are more realistic, even though elements from the fantastic are to be found in some.

 

In earlier times, before the modern mass- production of books, grannies, nurses and female servants used to tell children tales. Today folk tales in the written form are still an important part of the Russian child’s experience. Those Folk tales provide the Soviet child with a first impression of the costumes and moral conceptions.

In the original storytelling situation there was no definitive “text”: tales were told in different ways each time according to the audience, depending on whether they were adults or children. Folk tales were a sort of one-man play in which mimicry. gestures and the reaction of the audience were of great importance.

 

Folklore was supposed to die. Soviet ideology proclaimed that communism was the way of the future and folklore, which many people believed contained survivals from the past, was a relic that should have no place in a communist state.

Folklore, as it turns out, survived better than Lenin and, unlike Lenin, it truly is “vsegda s Nami “ (always with us); folklore was, is, and always will be.

Folklore appeals to a primal element in human nature. Regardless of the society in which it functions, folklore deals with very basic desires and needs. This makes it seem like a repository of ancient ideas. Certainly the widely, and cross-culturally, used term “folk wisdom” refers to something beyond time, if not before time, and may explain why many associate folklore with the ancient past. This makes it a particularly attractive field in which to seek early, hypothetically pure, and uncontaminated forms.

 

Russian folklore came from Slavic mythology. It is the mythological aspect of the pantheistic religion << Pantheism is the belief that all reality is identical with divinity, or that everything composes an all-encompassing, immanent god >> that was practiced by the Slavs before Christianization.

Russian folklore often shows the influence of the ancient world. With or without influence from outside, ancient Russia had an animal-centered culture, with the primeval belief that the animal world was as powerful as the human one. Animals were considered as standing on an equal footing with humans, and were thus offered the same attitude of trust and friendship that one might (or might not) extend to another man. We can find those animals among all Russian fairytales with their own symbolic meanings depending on the story.

The role of animals in Slavic folklore reflects the position they played in pagan cosmology. With the coming of Christianity, the people were not allowed to preserve their beliefs in their original form, with gods and goddesses and pagan rites, but the old religion survived in the disguise of folklore. Once the code is deciphered, folklore can be read as a compendium of ancient

beliefs [4].

 

To understand the ancient tales and the meaning embedded in them, it is necessary to abandon the view of the modern world and look at the world through the eyes of people who lived in ancient times, when the tales themselves appeared. The same tale could have different interpretations, explaining the correct semantic perception of the surrounding world.

 

Until the end of the XVIII century, the intelligentsia and the clergy referred fairy tales to the category of superstitions of the common people, which was invariably depicted as wild and primitive. The prevailing philosophical and philosophical trend of that epoch - classicism , << refers generally to a high regard for a classical period, classical antiquity in the Western tradition, as setting standards for taste which the classicists seek to emulate. >>.- was guided by antiquity, flavored by Christian censorship, and European rationalism. The peasant has nothing to learn from a nobleman, since these stories address all classes.

 

However, at the beginning of the nineteenth century, along with the Romantic movement, scholars, philosophers, and poets came to the realization that the oldest mythological consciousness largely determines the way of life and worldview of each person. You cannot escape from your roots, for the break with them is similar to the separation of the river from its source. "Studying old songs, folk tales," writes Pushkin, "is necessary for a perfect knowledge of the properties of the Russian language." An intensive study of the legends preserved in the people from their begins, reveals their deep value and worldview significance.

 

A folk tale is a mean of shaping a person's world in traditional Slavic culture. Along with the explanation of moral values, folk tales contain an integral picture of the world. This picture of the world echoes with the overarching models represented in the mythologies of different peoples in the world.

 

Slavic tales have suffered many distortions, but, nevertheless, in many of them the essence of the lesson remained, “laid in a fable”. It is a fiction in our reality, but the reality is in a different reality, not less real than the one in which we live. For a child, the concept of reality is expanded. Children see and feel much more energy fields and flows than adults. One must respect other's realities. What is for us – Nebyl (), is Bylyu () for the baby. Therefore, it is important to direct children to the "right" fairy tales, with truthful, original images, without layers of politics and history.

When one tells a story to a child, knowing its hidden meaning, one can infuse ancient wisdom into it, absorbing it, as Russian tradition states, "with the milk of the mother." Such a child will learn various lessons and traditions without logical confirmation. Figuratively, the right hemisphere, as modern psychologists say.

 

For many centuries, folk tales taught the wisdoms of life, talked about the world around them and interacted with it. They educate to morals, instruct to goodness and justice, love and duty. Children learn to comprehend the actions of fairy-tale heroes, and determine whether it is right or wrong. Also, folk tales teach children to love and respect their parents, instill a sense of belonging to nature, and preach to patriotism, courage and heroism.

 

Folk tales are a real heritage; they are used to improve knowledge of history of languages. They have aesthetic values.

I came to a conclusion that folk tales are akin to people’s life, their history, beliefs and mentality. Various stages of a nation’s development are reflected in them in a peculiar way. The folk tales show little interest in a structured religion. On the contrary, there is an abiding faith in the people and their capabilities in confronting the wonders of everyday life.

 

Folk arts and crafts are big motifs in Russian “Narodnie skaski” as well as in Russian traditional costume and textiles.

A broad definition of Russian folk art includes the overlapping categories of peasant art, urban crafts and “kustar” (small scale home industry).

The festive garments worn by women and men might be compared with the décor of the peasant house “izba” made up of many elements. Historically textiles were important for their embroideries, prints, motifs and details. Often designs shared with traditional folk ornaments.

 

 

II. Psychological overview

 

If you are waiting for a counselor psychologist, then the psychologist should be a wise old man (preferably with a white beard) who knows everything and is able to give the only correct advice. Think about whether this image of a wise old man is already reflected somewhere?

Where? Of course in fairy tales and myths. The heroes of many fairy tales meet on their road such a wise adviser. Following his advice and  instruction, the hero of a fairy tale or myth can achieve his goal.

 

Fairy tales and myths are the fruit of folk fantasy, and not written literary work of a single author. This is their wisdom. Fantasy always expresses images of the unconscious. And since fairy tales are not a fantasy of a single individual, but a fruit of centuries-old creativity of many diverse people - we find in them universal (inherent in all people) images (or, as psychologists say, archetypes)

 

Archetypal images are inherent in the unconscious person from the very beginning, to all people and each person. Our fantasies, for example, about the beautiful and, at the same time, the wise girl-wife, the Prince-rescuer, the good and evil wizard (magician, psychic) ​​and, in the end, the wise adviser - are inherent in us not because the tales "inspired" these images, but because they are inherent in our psyche from the beginning, like instincts (see the article Our Nightmares of the First Days of Life). Fairy tales only express archetypal images through the fantasy of the authors of fairy tales, which are as many as the storytellers. Since the fairy tale is the fruit of collective creativity, the images of fairy tales are also called images of the collective unconscious, emphasizing their universality, ethnocultural (and even intercultural) universality.

 

  1. Characters and figures

 

1. (Баба Йога) Baba Yaga

 

The image of  Baba Yaga is complex. Her character is ancient, rooted in old Slavic legends.

She is also known as Baba Yaga Boney Legs, because, in spite of a ferocious appetite, she is as thin as a skeleton. In Russian that's: 'Baba Yaga Kostianaya Noga'. Her personality is controversial- both frightful, menacing, sharp teethed witch but also powerful, wise and helpful at times, for those she chooses to help.

Baba Yaga lives in a hut deep in the forest. Her hut seems to have a personality of its own and can move about on its extra-large chicken legs. Usually the hut is either spinning around as it moves through the forest or stands at rest with its back to the visitor. The windows of the hut seem to serve as eyes. The door is at times invisible and the fence around the house is made of human bones with skulls stacked in the corners.

When visitors enter her hut, (not too often) Baba Yaga asks them whether they came of their own free will, or whether they were sent. (One answer is the right one!)

Thankfully, she appears to have no power over the pure of heart, such as Vasilisa the beautiful, and those who are 'blessed' (protected by the power of love, virtue, or a mother's blessing.)

Baba Yaga rules over the elements. Her faithful servants are the White Horseman, the Red Horseman and the Black Horseman (Bright Day, Red Sun, and Black Night). Their appearance is distinctive: each dressed in colors and lacquered armor and trappings to suit their name with their magical horses colored to match.

If we look in detail at all the fairy tales where Baba Yaga appears, we can distinguish two of her roles: she acts as an assistant, then as a villain. Sometimes she gives advice to the protagonist and gives him a magical artifact, and sometimes she also builds all sorts of difficulties to the characters and menaces to kidnaps the young children to burn them in the oven.

Baba Yaga, appears before us in three incarnations: Yaga - the hero, beats with the heroes. Yaga, the kidnapper, steals people. Yaga-giver, gives magic things. Baba Yaga's complex personality  is related to the death and the underworld, she knows and has power over peoples destiny. Baba Yaga is related to the air element.

It's worth mentioning, the esoteric  fairy-tale Instruction-Lesson with Baba Yaga:

“Go there, it's not known Where, Bring That, it's not known What.”

This instruction given to the fairy-tale fellows is more than simple instruction. This instruction was received as a path of spiritual development. A person begins by looking inside himself to see all the variety of colors and sounds within himself; wisdom. The key to this Wisdom lies in the ancient admonition: Go There Without knowing Where, Know That, Do not Know For You What.

 

Why Baba-yaga is a "bone leg"? Why did her nose grow into the ceiling? Why does the hut "without windows without doors" stand on "chicken legs"? Yes, because Baba-yaga is not a man, but a corpse! One foot stands in the world of the living, the other - in the world of the dead. She lies in a coffin, that's why her nose has grown in the ceiling! And this hut - without windows, without doors, like a coffin. And on the chicken legs, it is because the coffins are not buried, but put on piles, so that the animals do not reach their content ... ".

 

The archetype of Baba Yaga is very close to the Archetype of the Great Mother. Mother embodies an instinctive and emotional beginning, which is the source of life and vital warmth.

Tales knew different forms (formats) of Yagi.

 

The first type, the most common, is the "Yaga the kidnapper," carrying away people and especially children, whom she then tries to roast and eat.

 

The second type, which occurs less often than the other two, is the "Yaga-giver", which takes the hero, tests it and hands him a wonderful fire-breathing horse, rich gifts, wonderful objects, etc.

 

The third type is "Yaga warrior", fighting with heroes and defeating many of them. Yaga warrior in fairy tales - this is usually the antagonist of the hero: flew into the hut and find a stranger in it, she beats him to death, cuts out of his back a belt, etc .; But her victory is only endowed with a special strength, cunning and skill bogatyr. Such Yaga in some fairy tales also appeared as the mother of Serpents - opponents of heroes: as a rule, in tales the hero first fought with her sons, and then with herself.

 

And, finally, there is another "type" of Yaga, for obvious reasons, less known: "Yaga - seducer." This image is more often found in Ukrainian and Polish folklore (see "Baba Yaga-Woman").

 

In some South Slavic fairy tales, Baba-Yaga does not appear as an evil old wooded woman, but as a steppe rich man, sometimes as a mother, wife or sister of serpents killed by warriors. In many fairy tales Yaga herself rides a horse and fights like a hero; she opposes the heroes who have come to her kingdom, and, unlike the Serpent, who usually acts alone (although, thanks to its many-headedness, is, as it were, the symbol of the plurality of attackers), he attacks the head of a whole army.

 

Propp believed that "The image of Baba-Yaga goes back to the archetype of a totemic animal, providing a successful hunt for the totem in prehistoric times. Subsequently, the role of a totemic animal is occupied by a creature that is subject to the entire forest with its inhabitants. The female image of Baba Yaga is related to the matriarchal notions of the structure of the social world. During the adoption of the Christian faith by the Slavs, the old pagan deities were persecuted. In the memory of the people there were only deities of the lowest order, so-called. Khtonic creatures, to which belongs Baba Yaga

 

 

2. Кощея Бессмертный (Koshei The Immortal)

 

Like Baba-Yaga, the character of Koshchei, , has a mythological basis, dating back to ancient times. He is a terrible villain, heartless, cruel, but powerful. A gaunt, skeleton, that could only be killed by destroying the needle where "his heart" was concealed. The needle was inside an egg, the egg inside a bird, the bird inside a hare, the hare inside a chest, a chest high in a tree, the tree growing on a magical island that is notoriously hard to find. Also, he kidnaps beautiful princesses to marry them. In other tales, Koshchei possessed vast amounts of gold.

Koshchei the Immortal is one of the most striking fairy-tale characters, making an indelible impression on the listener, especially on the children's audience. Plots in which this character is present are always made to empathize with the protagonist - Ivan Tsarevich, to worry for his fate, since his opponent is strong, powerful and, as it seems, invulnerable.

It is also significant that in the Russian folk dialects the word "Koschei" has the meaning "thin, thin man, walking skeleton". However, most likely, it has a foreign origin.

This definition is "filthy," "soulless," "immortal." All of them from the point of view of mythopoetic consciousness allow us to qualify Koshchei as a creature belonging to a "different" fairy-tale world.

On the perception of Koshchei the Immortal as representative of the "other" world, the world of death, indicate the characteristics of his whereabouts. The kingdom of Koshchei is very far away: the hero has to go to the "bend light, at the very end" of it. There, from all the paths, leads the longest, the most complex and dangerous.

The dwelling of Koshchei the Immortal is depicted in a fairy tale as a palace, a castle, a big house, a "pho-grater - golden windows". Here are innumerable riches - gold, silver, pitched pearls, which the hero after the victory over the enemy takes from his kingdom.

Koshchei's belonging to the "other" world can be traced in a line that brings him closer to the image of Baba Yaga. Like Baba Yaga, he discovers the presence of a man in his house by the smell, and to describe this point, the storytellers use the same formulas: "Fu-fu-fu, something smells Russian spirit in the room" - or: "Fu -fu! The Russian cat has never been heard of, it can not be seen, and the Russian cat itself came to the yard. " As in the case of Baba Yaga, the expression "Russian Koska", typical of the Russian fairy tale, means a person in general as a representative of another epic tribe.

 

The death of Koshchei is in the egg, where the needle is located instead of the natural germ - that which gives birth to life. Yolk, protein and shell - three constituents of everything, the three whales on which the world rests is the idea, energy and matter from which anything is built. It is no accident that different ancient cultures have chosen this symbol, as a model for the creation of the world. In the Hindu tradition, Brahma was born from an egg, in the Chinese - Pangu, in the Slavic ancestor of the world - Rod, in the Egyptian - the world was born from the egg of the great Gogotun. So, instead of generating the beginning of life, we see the shape - the shell, in which the needle is - something stabbing, bringing pain. Koshchei is the negative sphere of human consciousness. The immortality of Koshchei is the impossibility to free oneself from one's illusions, from chaos until one realizes that Koshchei is part of himself and will not find the root of his evil.

 

Koshchei is immortal and unbeaten in a direct, direct duel, a negative, gloomy (opaque) energy-information complex in our inner world. It can be both a decorated bearer of evil, and a shapeless dark mighty vortex. Steals an object of love and treasure of the heart and hides in its inaccessible realm. Behind external thinness ("Koschey" - from "bone") is a dark, incomprehensible and alien miracle power. In the inner world, the image of Koshchei the Immortal is comparable with a sudden darkening - an attack of negative subconscious forces and images capable for a time to seize power over a person. After such a breakdown in the negative often there is a loss of light, joy and peace in the soul. The subject of ideal love and reverence is hidden behind heavy opaque energies (vibrations) of poor quality. To return back the former state and the stolen (closed) high light ideal is very difficult.

 

Chernyshev in his work "Archetypes of ancient times, in the Russian cultural tradition "16

on the concept of K.G. Jung and examines the content Russian fairy tales from the point of view of archetypal images representing themselves with certain mental qualities. Among 11 studied by him Koshchei is, according to his opinion, an archetype of rebellion. Proceeding from its destructive- and opposition to the existing society.

 

Novikov's Koschei is represented in an unusual for all forms of tragedy. Personality, deceived

and ruined by the woman whom he trusted. How we know, Ivan Tsarevich defeats Koshchei.

The image of Koshchei the Immortal, is an image of totemism.

We suppose, that the plot, played out between Ivan Tsarevich, Koshchei Immortal and the kidnapped girl, is a dynamic image of the oedipal conflict and its historical transformation. In this case Koshchei is a collective image of an authoritarian father, an individual owner of a woman and greedy.

This represents the space of the unconscious, where it unfolds struggle, in fairy tales, as already many people could recognize, it is represented by the afterlife.

Our storyline presents the events of Z. Freud's "Totem and Taboo".

 

Koshchei the Immortal, on his social position, in all fairy tales, represents the tsar, or prince, or the ruler of a certain kingdom, often he has an army and a myriad of wealth. In fairy tales it is mentioned how Koschey returns to his mansion or to the palace, The element of seduction of women abducted by wealth. Ivan Tsarevich often discovers as a kidnapper- in the royal mansions. All this speaks about an extraordinary high social status.

Second - Koshchei's kinship ties Immortal- E.V. Karavaeva notes: the fairy tale mentions that Vasilisa is a daughter of Koshchei the Immortal, whom he does not want for anyone to marry, which is another manifestation of his greed and money-grubbing, authoritarianism.

The name of Vasilisa comes from the Byzantine "Basileos", which means "king" or "queen".

Vasilisa is a royal daughter, she is related to and confirms her high social status of the king. Among the women kidnapped by Koshchei, there are no commoners, they are all, as a rule, royal daughter, wife or woman. This, again, confirms the social position of Koshchei.

Koshchei's relationship with the abducted women also cause some perplexity. A.V. Chernishev says this to the hero as a symbol of the man, that, by abducting and using violence against woman, this character symbolizes his relationship to all living things through a kindred being. However, looking at his actions, Koshchei is understandable and not indifferent to honor, for example, he is grateful to Ivan Tsarevich in the fairy tale about Marya Morevna for liberation and twice spared him, he is not indifferent to warm relations and affection, that's how he discovers the truth about his death.

With females, he communicates with captives jokes over them, sharing experiences, listening to them. He appears to be a respectable family man. He does not care whether he is married to her or keeps her as a captive.

Ivan Tsarevich and Koschey the Immortal also are related, if they represent the father and son.

It can be assumed that they are familiar, because of the smell of the prince sign in the fairytale - "Fu-fu!the smell” koshei smells the smell of the prince, he recognize it.

The relationship is always drawn up so that Ivan can to be the son of Koshchei.

Returning to the previous remark, Koshchei’s nature is significant. Since this hero is a paternal image of authoritarianism and autocracy, which must be established, then the strength and energy for this he must draw in the appropriate source, namely, in the human psyche.  As is known power, which has a leader, is not only based on power and authority, but on unconscious interactions relationships. The fact that the power of Koshcheev in water, you can find many references, but now we can point out the reason for this. Water in dreams and mental visions is a symbol to the unconscious.

3. Additional forms and their meanings

 

Izbushka na Kurinih Nojekax

Избушка на курьих ножках- языческий Домик мертвых

 

"House of the Dead" - the very hut of Baba-Yaga, standing chicken legs. The ancient burial rite included the smoking of the legs of the "hut" without windows and doors, into which the corpse was placed or what was left of it.

 

The hut on chicken legs in the folk fantasy of the Russians was modeled after the image of the pre-Slavic (Finnish) churchyard - a small "house of the dead". The house was put on pillars. In the "house of the dead" the Russians put the ashes of the deceased (as well as the mistress of the Baba Yaga hut always wants to plant Ivan in the oven and fry it there). The coffin itself, the housekeeper or the cemetery-graveyard from such houses appeared as a window, climbed into the world of the dead, a means of passage into the underworld. That's why the fairy-tale hero constantly comes to the hut on chicken legs to get into another dimension of time and into the reality of no longer living people but wizards. There is no other way there.

Russians (Slavic Finno-Ugrians) called hemp, on which the hut was put, that is, the house Baba-Yaga initially stood only on the smoky stumps. Most likely, these stubs were fumigated, so that insects and rodents did not penetrate them into the "house of the dead".

A description of how the old woman is housed in the hut is also remarkable: "Teeth on the shelf, and the nose has grown into the ceiling," "A bone leg lies on the stove Baba-Yaga, from the corner to the corner, put the teeth on the shelf", "Ahead of the head, in the corner a foot, in another. All descriptions and behaviors of the evil old woman are distinguished by canonical predetermination. This cannot help but suggest that the mythological character is in one way or another inspired by reality.

 

Russian scientists with enviable stubbornness defend fantasies about the allegedly "Slavic" origin of Russians, and therefore they call "Slavic" the tales of Baba Yaga, and the rite of the "house of the dead." For example, A. Barkov, a well-known expert in the field of mythology, writes in the encyclopedia "Slavic Mythology and Epic" (article "Beliefs of the Ancient Slavs"):

 

"Her hut" on the chicken legs "is depicted standing in the forest more often (the center of another world), then on the edge, but then the entrance to it is from the side of the forest, that is, from the world of death. The name "kurya legs" most likely came from the "kurnyi", that is, smoke-stuck, pillars on which the Slavs put the "hut of death" - a small frame with the ashes of the deceased inside (such a funeral rite existed among the ancient Slavs as far back as the 6th-9th centuries. ). Baba-Yaga inside this hut seemed to be a living dead person - she lay motionless and did not see a man come from the world (the living do not see the dead, the dead do not see the living).

 

She learned about his arrival by smell - "the Russian spirit smells" (the smell of the living is unpleasant to the dead). The person who meets the Baba Yaga hut on the border of the world of life and death, as a rule, is sent to another world to free the captive princess. To do this, he must join the world of the dead. Usually he asks Yaga to feed him, and she gives him the food of the dead.

 

There is another option - to be eaten by Yaga and thus to be in the world of the dead. Having passed tests in the hut of Baba-Yaga, a person appears to belong simultaneously to both worlds, is endowed with many magical qualities, subjugates various inhabitants of the world of the dead, overcomes the terrible monsters inhabiting it, wins a magical beauty from them and becomes king. "

 

Any fairy tale about Baba Yaga tells us that it's not easy to enter her house. To enter, even there are special words that are able to turn the hut to his front and to the forest back. To do this, you just need to ask: "The hut, the hut, stand in the old way, as the mother put: back to the forest, to me forward!" - and the hut obediently will fulfill the request.

"Baba Yaga's Hut" is a full-fledged folklore complex. Besides the hut itself, which can now rotate with the help of visitors, the gate to the Tale through which one can get to the territory of the Forest with the age-old pines is built in one style. The hut itself is fenced on all sides by a palisade. Slightly lower to the river Ukhtom built a wooden house, stylized under the bear's den - Forest residence of the Yaroslavl bear. And the ice slide is decorated with gates with the heads of the snake Gorynych. Therefore, in this place it is possible to carry out various activities connected not only with Baba Yaga, but also with the history of folklore, the history of the forest and the evil spirit living in it.

 

The body has always been considered a "hut" (house) of the soul and "commanded" by him (the body) could either an initiate or some higher power - related to the Soul. Smoking and smoke in general have always symbolized the ascending powers of the Soul.

 

As a rule, there is a stove in the hut of Baba Yaga. The furnace combines three important features: it gives heat, protects people from cold, and therefore, preserves their life; it prepares food, it is the place of transformation, and therefore has a close connection with the processes of birth and rebirth; The pernicious power of the flame inside her can destroy a person.

 

The ability of a flame or furnace to give spiritual rebirth is based on the psychological fact: when a person embraces any inner passion, the level of awareness decreases and, therefore, the contact with the unconscious is facilitated. In a state of high emotional intensity, a transformation takes place, which is always perceived as a rebirth or release.

 

Also, the stove can be a prison - a place where the main character should burn (it is not necessary to burn in the literal sense, perhaps, to "burn" in a certain status, and be reborn in another).

 

Дремучий лес ( Dremuchi Les - Dense forest)

 

Another symbol of otherness in folk Russian fairy tales is a dense forest.

The forest is one of these great symbols which have been ever-present in myth, legend, literature, film and others, if not all, creative endeavors of mankind

 It is also the space of another world. Often the forest is the boundary between the world of the dead and the living, where the main character must travel. A sign of another world is the absence of signs of life and movement, silence - or, conversely, the presence of intelligent plants and animals.

The forest is an exist between Spiritual and Natural Plane of the Mind, between God and the world he created, between body and spirit, and between action and intention. The poem shows wonderfully what the forest may correspond with in the spiritual realm of symbols.

The Forest is often seen as a symbol of the unconscious. It’s used as a metaphor for entering the unknown. Transformation is usually part of the story. The hero enters the forest and discovers something about himself.

 

It’s incredibly difficult to come up with a proper definition for archetypes, a term which is used very often, but often people mean very different things when they speak of an archetype. C.G. Jung had a very specific idea about archetypes and wrote a book about it. There is an interesting aspect here, when we not only think of archetypical images of so-called living agencies, which have a living on its own in the human psyche. There is one interpretation of archetype which resembles Plato’s idea of the eternal “forms” – something which cannot seen in itself but is expressed in many variations (there are endless variations of tables but only one basic idea what a table is).

According to Plato the forms or the archetypes exist in an intelligible realm. “In the Phaedrus the Forms are in a ‘place beyond heaven’ and in the Republic the sensible world is contrasted with the intelligible world in the famous allegory of the cave…Socrates postulated a world of ideal Forms, which he admitted were impossible to know”

 

In other words, the archetypes or the forms exist in the Otherworld. Our world is a corruption of the real world. What we are seeing are shadows of the real thing.

 

If we translate the example of the table we might say that there are endless variations of forests but there is only one ideal forest, which is not part of our own world. We cannot see it in itself but we can develop a sensibility for the “Forms”, we might feel them and artists can create images of its various aspects. We long for the ideal image, maybe the luminescent forest in Avatar was in some way an artistic expression for our deepest wishes.

If you are deep in a Forest Dark and you can’t see much because it’s a moonless night your reaction is usually not a journey to the inner self. Instead your senses get sharpened. Survival instinct awakes. You want to know who else is there when you hear the many noises between the trees. You calculate how far you away from civilization, and you ask when you have taken the wrong path.

Maybe this is the important aspect of the archetype – the forest is the place where we can get lost, but not only in the depths of the own psyche but in a sense that we become aware that we don’t know a lot, that our very idea of reality could be shattered any time.

References :

 

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Tatar, Maria. The Classic Fairy Tales . New York: W. W. Norton & Company, 1999.

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 Branson, Rachel, "Carving the Perfect Citizen: The Adventures of Italian Pinocchio in the Soviet Union and the United States" (2014). Honors Projects. Paper 18.

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Carmen Popescu and Alina Maria Andrieș. The being of evil in the classic Romanian fairytale - expression of the Shadow. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 114 ( 2014 ) 906 – 913.

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Folklore and the Construction of National Identity in Nineteenth Century Russian Literature

Jessika Aguilar

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  Biotechnology's Promise and Potential: A Caution for Developers Bertman, Richard J; Pinck, Dan. Real Estate Finance; New York8.3

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Mechatronics design principles for biotechnology product development  Carl-Fredrik Mandenius1 and Mats Bjo¨ rkman2

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The role of animals in Russian folk tales by Grace Halstead Young

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Folk tales for children in the soviet union Amor, Stuart Signal; Jan 1, 1975; 16, ProQuest pg. 4

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Natalie Kononenko Folklore Scholarship in the Post-Soviet Period

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САКРАЛЬНОЕ ЗНАЧЕНИЕ РУССКИХ СКАЗОК. By автором Любодар

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Кантомирова Б. И., Салолыкина М. В. Семантика образа леса в русской солдатской сказке // Юный ученый. — 2015. — №1. — С. 135-137. URL:

 

Пожалуйста, не забудьте правильно оформить цитату:

Кантомирова Б. И., Салолыкина М. В. Семантика образа леса в русской солдатской сказке // Юный ученый. — 2015. — №1. — С. 135-137. URL: http://yun.moluch.ru/archive/1/33/ (дата обращения: 30.08.2017)

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The uses of enchantment, The meaning and importamce of fairy tales, Bruno Bettelheim.

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Russian folk art, Alison Hilton

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Аникин В.П. Русские народные сказки. М.: «Правда» 1985. 576с.

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Кротова Н.С. Как убить Кощея Бессмертного? (культурно-мифологическое значение атрибутов смерти сказочного персонажа) [Электронный ресурс].URL: http://www.ruthenia.ru/folklore/krotova3.htm

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